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A Continuing Argument

After the Lollard Trials of 1428-1430, the arguments around the value of ordained ministers and the sacraments of the Church went underground.  Only to emerge again with the various events of the Reformation culminating in the removal of  religious statues, stained glass and images of every sort.

The process seems to have been completed in Loddon in 1642  at the beginning of the Civil War when a glazier was employed to deface the images in church.  The relief images from around the font were chiselled off and plastered over. In Victorian times, when the plaster was removed the rich colouring was revealed.

The font was relatively new, bought with a bequest from William Berrys in 1428. It was the latest 

Loddon Lollards

The sight of a respectable middle class town’s woman stripped to her underwear, bare footed and head uncovered,  humiliated and from time to time flogged as she processed around church and market place was meant to be an example to the population.  It was a common sight in Loddon during the years 1428-1430!

Certain town’s men and women and, on market days, others from the surrounding villages, were forced to undertake these rituals of public penance:  the price of their heresy.   

However much like punishment it appeared, penance is what the Church called it!  It was harsh but preferable  to  being burnt at the stake!   The penitents, who had all appeared before William Alnwick, Bishop of Norwich were Lollards whose beliefs were more radical than those of John Wycliffe and the earlier Lollards!  They were disciples of Hugh Pye and William White preachers who had their base in Loddon.

The heresy of which they were accused, and freely admitted,  had  little or no respect for the authority of ordained ministers,  nor for the sacraments of the Church.  To the 21st Century mind Bishop William’s decisions to burn Hugh Pye and William White at the stake (in Lollards’ Pit in Norwich) and to impose harsh punishment/penance on their disciples,  is  a clear admission of the weakness of his arguments! 

Burning heretics, in practice those who opposed church rulers,  had begun long before Pye and White were executed and continued for years after.  Catholics burned Protestants and Protestants, Catholics and both burned witches!  I  disagree with the Loddon Lollards  about the value of ordained ministry and the sacraments, but still revere them as martyrs for the free speech and the freedoms we enjoy today.

Of course, the argument about orders and sacraments has not gone away!  It is current still, but after the trials of 1428-1430 it went underground, where it already enjoyed a long history.  Bare footed friars, such as those who supported John Wycliffe (alongside John of Gaunt and Henry Percy)  when he was called to appear before the Bishop of London in 1377, had long challenged the opulence of prince bishops by their radical poverty.  Mother Julian, writing in Norwich a generation earlier, stressed the courtesy of Christ. This was an image at odds with that presented by Henry Despencer,  the Fighting Bishop of Norwich, whose army routed the peasants army at the Battle of North Walsham in 1381. None of this went unnoticed .

The Despenser Retable By J An – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, 0

In the St.Luke’s Chapel of Norwich Cathedral there is a rare survival from the pre-Reformation Church,  an altar piece known as  Despencer Retable.  Said to be commissioned to celebrate Henry Despenser’s North Walsham victory, it shows Christ’s public humiliation and flogging, dozy soldiers and military types join in the humiliation and then totally miss the Resurrection!   No prizes for guessing where the artist’s sympathy lay.

 News of John Ball’s sermon at Blackheath and his subsequent death would had travelled up the east coast from London and all the way up the Norwich river!  John Ball had been in Norwich during the time of Black Death.   People knew about him.

Like Pye and White,  John Ball was  labelled and then executed as a Lollard. The same fate awaited the leaders of the Norfolk uprising.  As Langley Abbey was among those places  attacked by the mob, it would have included folk Lodden in its ranks.   Unlike the Lollards of 1428-1430 these Lollards had little interested in religion. They simply wanted to burn the legal documents that proved they were serfs and  tied to the land. 

John Ball at Blackheath. 1470 manuscript of Jean Froissart‘s Chronicles in the British Library.

In spite of his death, or perhaps because of it, John Ball’s sermon lives on and would have been known by those who took part in the Norfolk uprising and painted the Despenser Retable.  The coastal trade took ships and sailors up and down the east coast and its rivers and by those who painted the Despenser Retable !   John Ball’s words still echo down the ages and retain the the power to challenge and  inspire   – “When Adam delved and Eve span, who was then a gentleman.”  

William Morris’s Dream of John Ball illustrated by Edward Burns-Jones

 

 

Pilgrims and Anchorites

At the Norwich end of the Norfolk Saints’ Way, St. Julian’s Church, Mother Julian’s Cell and the Julian Centre (next door) are an obvious way station. How, I wondered, does a 21st Century pilgrim understand the  vocation of an anchorite?  How, indeed, does a 21st Century pilgrim understand pilgrimage?  I have been much helped by a Blog entry by A Clerk of Oxford.

Anchorites were sealed into their cell (actually or symbolically), as if it were a tomb and for the rest of their earthly lives. With one window into the church and another open to the world beyond,  an anchorites was a liminal person. Like the relics of a long dead saint they , themselves, occupied a threshold twixt the here and the hereafter.

In medieval times the pilgrim was also a liminal person.  For the length of their pilgrimage they were excused the responsibilities of everyday life, in order to concentrate on the spiritual.  They were excused the earthly, to pay attention to the heavenly.

St. Julian’s church, next to the docks in Mother Julian’s day, also occupied a liminal space.  As church it was an outpost of the heavenly kingdom here on earth. On the dockside,  it occupied a at a different type of liminal space. The sort common to all littoral (seaside)  and riparian (riverside) places.

A pilgrim on the Norfolk Saints Way (littoral and riparian all the way), walks on the edge, by the water, from Burgh Castle to Norwich.   Sauntering ( I love the word.  It means to muse and I so want it to have been derived from the French sante terre :holy ground and to have been used to describe the liesurely travel of a pIlgrim)   Suntering on this path, the pilgrim is free engage in Galilee Spirituality – fishing and talking to fishermen, walking  by, sharing food and learning , considering flowers of the field and birds of the air, even climbing to a high places and all by the shore.   And when you consider it seems that all of these activities are liminal in one way. or another.

Fursey and his brothers, who chose Burgh Castle as a base, were pilgrims.  They had become pilgrims for the love of Christ leaving hearth and home never to return. Taking the Epistle to the Hebrews seriously, ” they had no abiding city but look to one that is to come.”

This same life long ideal of pilgrimage is promoted in Ancrene Wisse,  a 13th Century handbook for anchorites, where the visiting of relics is contrasted with something deeper

(Some)…. pilgrims travel with great labour to seek the bones of a single saint, such as St James or St Giles, but these pilgrims, who travel towards heaven, go to be made saints and to find God himself and all his holy hallows living in glory, and will live with him in joy without end. They truly find St Julian’s house, which wayfaring men earnestly seek. 
(Translation by The Clerk of Oxford) 

Most 21st Century pilgrims are unenthusiastic about old bones. We like the opportunity to walk through nature, space to sort our heads out and get some perspective on life.  Many of us like to kneel where prayer has been valid and reflect on the experience of earlier generations. Some of us feel God comes close to us in our journeying. Sometimes our hearts burn within us on the road, and we catch a glimpse at the breaking of bread. And yet: more often there is a sense, he has gone before us;  and though still warm, the nest is empty………  Each of our little pilgrim journey’s is sacramental (an outward and visible sign of something deeper, something spiritual),  of our earthly pilgrimage – and here we have no abiding city but we look for one that is to come.

Art Trail?

There are plenty of opportunities to develop the NSW as an Art Trail

Ancient and Modern

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Churches in the Landscape are themselves a form of art and they contain works of art too!  Modern works , such as John Dashwood’s gritty Stations of the Cross in Great Yarmouth Minster

or Norwich Cathedral’s recent acquisition, Brian Whelan’s Passion of Edith Cavell

 

 

 

There are also brilliant new stained glass windows at Reedham

 

Among the ancient works of art Norwich Cathedral is the  treasure chest

Surlingham Church Marsh Circular Walk

The Surlingham Circular Walk on the Wherryman’s Way is more of a gentle stroll than a walk. Just two miles around the RSPB Reserve and taking in two churches – the ruined St.Saviour’s and the thriving St. Mary’s . We parked at the wonderful Ferry House and returned to enjoy lunch    

 

We parked at the wonderful Ferry House and returned to enjoy lunch

 

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St John the Baptist Church in Reedham may be Roman fortlet

Reedham Archeology – just the job !

Antiquarian's Attic

A Norfolk church may have begun life as a Roman fortlet protecting supplies on their way to Hadrian’s Wall. Trevor Heaton hears how ‘keyhole archaeology’ is solving the riddle of Reedham.

Sometimes things can hide in plain sight. But that doesn’t it make any easier to tell their story.

For centuries, researchers and historians have realised that there is something rather special about St John the Baptist Church in Reedham

A reconstruction of the Roman frontier fortlet near Gundremmingen in what is now Bavaria in Germany. Prof Fulford believes Reedham might have looked something like this.A reconstruction of the Roman frontier fortlet near Gundremmingen in what is now Bavaria in Germany. Professor Fulford believes Reedham might have looked something like this.

 

For this 15th-century Broadland gem clearly has Roman roots, as can be seen in the large amounts of material in its walls, the thin tiles particularly distinctive. That impression was only strengthened after a disastrous 1981 fire which gutted the church – and revealed yet more ancient masonry inside.

Now new…

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Late Roman Christian disc and Viking silver ingot

Reflecting on pre7th C Christinity in East Anglia when I came upon this. Brilliant!

Antiquarian's Attic

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Silver disc reveals Christian worship

A small Roman silver disc, thought to have been part of a signet ring, has revealed evidence of Christian worship in late Roman Norfolk.The disc, circa 312 to 410AD, found near Swaffham in February, is inscribed ‘Antonius, may you live in God’ [ANTONI VIVAS IN DEO].

Adrian Marsden, finds officer based at Norwich Castle Museum, said: “We have practically no other evidence for any Christians in Norfolk.”The disc was declared treasure at an inquest in King’s Lynn.Mr Marsden added: “The disc that would have been set into the bezel from a signet ring constitutes important evidence for Christianity in late Roman Norfolk.

“The inscription, translating as ‘Antonius, may you live in God’, is a Christian formula and we have practically no other evidence – apart from a broadly similar ring in gold from Brancaster* – for any Christians in Norfolk. “On one level, of course…

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